Black and minority ethnic teachers face ‘inherent racism’ in UK schools

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Introduction

This research paper focusses on the issues facing Black Minority Ethnic (BME) Teachers in schools in the UK. (NASUWT Big Question Annual Survey 2106) It is based on the report of the results of the NASUWT big question survey among its members looking at their experiences in UK schools.

However, a discovery was made in the Survey results in which there were major differences in the experiences of BME teachers compared to White teachers. The report summaries that BME teachers’ have poor experiences across the school system. These experiences are similar to the findings across the Education research landscape. (NASUWT Big Question Annual Survey 2106) The reports states that major differences exist at almost every level of teaching and the evidence if inequality between BME teachers and White teachers in pay, progression and leadership roles is striking.

In my research paper, I will be looking at the Survey’s results and the report, looking at various Educational journals to fully critically access the survey findings. In addition, at the time of when the NASUWT report was published, several newspapers such as the Guardian and the Independent also reported on the findings. I will be finding out the why, the how and how to address each topic or point.

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(Artefact One) shows newspaper articles based on the results and findings of the NASUWT report. Articles were from both National newspapers (BBC News, Mirror, The Guardian, Independent) and a news article on TES website.

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(Artefact 2) ID Card of Teaching Supply Agency in which I work through in temporary teaching role around Yorkshire. This agency is my main agency that I work through. I am also registered with a couple of other agencies that I get work through when my main agency is unable to offer me work.

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(Artefact 3) examines the topics I would be covering in my research paper into how BME teachers face inherent racism in UK schools. 5 topics in the orange ovals were identifies as the key points impacting BME teachers in UK schools. The Runnymeade Trust and David Gilbourne were identified as key areas to research on for the paper.

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(Artefact 4) is a Wordle of the NASUWT report: Visible Minorities Invisible Teachers Report 2017. Looking at the prominent words which are ‘teachers’, ‘schools’ and ‘NASUWT’, it would seem, that the words that should be prominent in such report such as ‘equality’, ‘discrimination’, ‘Black’, and ‘ethnic’ are in fact non-prominent words in the Wordle.

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(Artefact 5) Due to the results of Artefact 4 I tried a different word generator. I used Tag Crowd with the same Report. This time the prominent words were ‘BME’, ‘schools’, ‘teachers’, and ‘ethnic’ which really described what the Report was about.

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(Artefact 6) is the Wordle of the TES article: ‘Racism ‘blighting’ lives of BME teachers, research finds’. Looking at the word cloud, the prominent word is ‘BME’. Other words were ‘teachers’, ‘teaching’, ‘education’, and ‘minority backgrounds’.

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(Artefact 7) is the Tag Crowd of Government policies on Education. The prominent words are ‘department’ and ‘education’. There were no words on the word cloud in relation with BME teachers or equality.

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(Artefact 8) is the Tag Crowd of Government policies on Equalities. The prominent words are, ‘equalities’, ‘government’, and ‘updated’. This shows that ‘equality’ is the main forefront of the government policies.

 

Indentify Argument points

NASUWT sixth annual Big Question Survey among its members. The Survey highlights the views of teachers and school leaders across the UK on a range of subjects, including: Pay; Pupil Behaviour; Empowerment and Professionalism; School Governance; and Mental and Physical Wellbeing. The NASUWT found a disparity in the results between White teachers and BME teachers. In my research, I am going to be looking at the reason for the disparities between White and BME teachers.

I will be looking at several areas that might affect BME teachers including, Initial Teacher Training, working conditions, promotions, supply teaching, Institutionalised racism, ethnocentric world views and intersectionality experiences.

 

Justification of closer topic

The topic of the experiences of BME teachers in UK schools is justified because as a BME teacher myself I am facing prejudices within UK schools. In addition, the NASUWT survey results matches the experiences that I have faced.

The topic of BME teachers in UK schools, I believe is a topic that is not researched enough. This was realised during my research into the topic. There aren’t many journal articles at primary and secondary level however there are significant research in UK higher education.

BME Students in Uk HIgher Education

BME students given that they perform as well as White students we will expect them to do as well during Initial Teacher Training.

(Richardson, 2008) journal studies suggests that academic attainment by ethnic minority graduates at UK institutions of higher education is lower than that by White graduates. It would seem

BME trainee teachers and initial Teacher Training

Evidence suggest, BME trainee teachers face discrimination that impacts on their capacity to complete their Initial Teacher Training (ITT).

 

According to the research data there

 

Table 1: Programme completion/withdrawal rates (2002–2006).

All BME   White/Other
Completed Failed/withdrawn Completed Failed/withdrawn Completed Failed/withdrawn
2002-3 115 (95%) 6 (5%) 9 (81.8%) 2 (18.2%) 106 (96.4%) 4 (3.6%)
2003-4 114 (95.8%) 5 (4.2%) 21 (87.5%) 3 (12.5%) 93 (97.9%) 2 (2.1%)
2004-5 104 (88.9%) 13 (11.1%) 14 (77.8%) 4 (22.2%) 90 (90.9%) 9 (9.1%)
2005-6 96 (93.2%) 7 (6.8%) 14 (77.8%) 4 (22.2%) 82 (96.5%) 3 (3.5%)
Total (4 years) 429 (93.3%) 31 (6.7%) 58 (81.7%) 13 (18.3%) 371 (95.4%) 18 (4.6%)

 

The above table taken from Wilkins, 2011 shows a significant disparity in race of the completion rate of BME teachers (30% failed/withdrawal rate) against White trainee teachers (10% failed/ withdrawal rate). Wilkins (2011) suggest that this disparity is ‘disproportionately’ high.

The table records the completions/withdrawal rates of trainee teachers between the years of 2002-2006. Over the 4-year period it shows there is a consistent disparity of between 10-15% gap between the completion/withdrawal rates of BME and White trainee teachers. According to Wilkins those who achieve their qualification, were ‘formally recorded as having significant difficulties in progression in either academic work or ‘professional performance’ (Wilkins, 2011).

This shows there could be a possible discrimination of BME trainee teachers as there should be no disparities between the completion rates. As both BME and White trainee teachers undergo the same pre-entry qualifications and interviews which shows their potential to complete the Initial Teacher Training course.

BME Trainee teachers are more likely to be ‘seen’ as a Black teacher as opposed to a teacher. I had in my own personal experience on my PGCE course that my mentor did not seem to like me. I don’t really know. I assume it could be she doesn’t like black people.

Wilkins, C. 2011. ‘You’ve got to be tough and I’m trying’: Black and minority ethnic student teachers’ experiences of initial teacher education. Race Ethnicity and Education. 14(3), pp. 365-386.

In-text citation: (Wilkins, 2011)

Table 3. National (English) completion/withdrawal rates (2003–2006).

 

All BME White/Other
Completed Failed/withdrawn Completed Failed/withdrawn Completed Failed/withdrawn
2003-4 8549 (88.8%) 1077 (11.2%) 705 (82.8%) 146 (17.2%) 7844 (89.4%) 931 (10.6 %)
2004-5 9958 (89.6%) 1161 (10.4%) 885 (83.8%) 171 (16.2%) 9073 (90.2%) 990 (9.8%)
2005-6 9545 (86.9%) 1436 (13.1%) 864 (76.9%) 259 (23.1%) 8681 (88.1%) 1177 (11.9%)
Total (3 years) 28052 (88.4%) 3674 (11.6%) 2454 (81.0%) 576 (19.0%) 25598 (89.2%) 3098 (10.8%)
Notes: * for university‐based Primary PGCE programmes only – data for 2002–3 not available. Data available from TDA Performance Profile (TDA 2007b

 

Training and Development Agency for Schools. 2007b. Provider performance profiles Available at

http://dataprovision.tda.gov.uk

[Google Scholar]

).

 

Table 3 compares the disparities between BME and White trainee teachers over a period of 3 years, 2003-2006. The table confirms there is a disparity of 10 percentage points between BME and White trainee teachers over the 3 years.

There has been a steady increase in the recruitment of BME trainee teachers in recent years however there is a low level of ITT course completion which is very concerning.

BME trainee teachers face discrimination that impacts on their capacity to complete their Initial Teacher Training (ITT) because of a possible number of reasons stated ranging from cultural reasons, the fact BME trainee teachers often commence teacher training at an older age or it could just purely be to do with racism.

BME Teachers Recruiment

Year on year, the government struggles to recruit enough teachers to meet quota. However, among BME Teachers, the gap is greater with BME Teachers less likely to be accepted on an Initial Teacher Training (ITT) course and once completed ITT course are less likely to secure a permanent teaching position.

(Boyle & Charles, 2016) In 2014, via the Freedom of Information (FOI) request, Liverpool City Council reported its teaching staff figures as 3380 White teachers and 18 Black teachers.

Boyle, W & Charles, M. 2016. How can only 18 black teachers working in Liverpool represent a diverse teaching workforce? A critical narrative. International Journal of Inclusive Education. 20(8), pp. 871-888.

(Boyle & Charles, 2016) states that Initial Teacher Training programmes are filled with White, middle class, monolingual female trainee teachers who will have the responsibility of teaching in school communities serving students who are culturally, linguistically, ethnically, racially and economically different from them.

(NASUWT Big Question Annual Survey 2106) states that there is a chronic shortage of BME teachers in relation to the BME pupil population and 75% of BME teachers have considered leaving the teaching profession. Areas with diverse pupil populations are missing out on BME teachers.

From my research, even though there is a chronic shortage of BME teachers in relation to the BME pupil population, it seems that BME trainee teachers are still less likely to be accepted onto an ITT course. I believe this could be to do with institutionalised racism or the notion of conspiracy.

(Blair 2008) journal paper looks at how the normalised nature of “whiteness” makes the idea of a conspiracy so compelling. Gillborn states in Blair’s journal paper that, One of the strengths of institutional racism is that no single person or agency can be held up as wholly responsible, to some extent, the system draws from them all”

BME Teachers working conditions

BME teachers are likely to have temporary contracts within school or via teaching supply agencies. Due to this BME Teachers are often paid less.

Mostly in temporary contracts they are often impeded from progressing through the career ladder. BME Teachers are often the last person to be hired but first to be dismissed from their position as it’s temporary.

Ramifications of temporary contracts for the BME teacher are the are unable to plan family or get a mortgage.

(NASUWT Big Question Annual Survey 2106) This report found that 75% of BME teachers have considered leaving the profession altogether. This shows there are serious problems with retention rates among BME teachers. One cause of this could be due to the working conditions of BME teachers. The report also found only a third of BME teachers are paid for ‘the full range of responsibilities they undertake’, which means BME teachers are often underpaid for the full range of responsibilities they undertake.

The measurement of teacher performance in school for managing capability is often discretionary. The report states that BME teachers often underrated when it comes to managing capability. This often leads to inequalities when BME teachers are paid less than White teachers during performance management.

The report went on to say the inequality of treatment of BME teachers is impacting wellbeing outside of school stating that 39% of BME teachers had to cancel their holiday plans compared to 20% White teachers.

This lead on to 35% of BME teachers more likely to have poor health because of their work compared to 25% of White teachers.

Looking at the data critically, there could be many reasons why there is a stark difference between BME teachers and White teachers according to the data. Firstly, we could look at the cultural backgrounds of BME teachers and White teachers.

Secondly, BME teachers are more likely to come into teaching at an older age compared to White teachers. (Wilkins, 2011) States that BME trainee teachers tend to be slightly older than White teachers when commencing Initial Teacher Training course. BME teachers coming into teaching at an older age could possibly mean they are more likely to have poor health due to their work.

Thirdly and finally, when it comes to the measurement of teacher performance is what you find is that majority of the time that BME teachers have managers that are of White ethnicity. A lot of the time when it come to the measurement of teacher performance BME teachers, White managers might have unconscious bias that might affect their judgement and in addition they might not fully understand the BME teacher’s cultural background.

Addressing the differences stated in the NASUWT report between BME teachers and White teachers could simply be that the process of teacher education and recruitment be overviewed. This should start from how BME teachers treated on the Initial Teacher Training programme and then look at how BME teachers are treated in the recruitment process and when working as a teacher within the school. This could be in the of diversity and unconscious bias training for all members of staff.

BME teachers and promotions

Evidence shows that BME Teachers due to several issues are unlikely to be promoted in their posts compared to White teachers.

(Coleman and Campbell-Stephens 2010) According to the journal paper, BME teachers tend to be in subordinate roles, which reinforces stereotypes within the school and the community. Other reasons why BME teachers are unlikely to progress due to stereotyping and low expectations which is a real barrier. Cultural issues can also play a big impact in that some White people don’t like taking authority from a Black leader.

All respondents in the journal valued the BME-only ‘Investing in Diversity’ course and the opportunities it offered to compare experiences with other BME aspirant leaders.

The journal concluded that it appears that discrimination and ethnic prejudice continue to affect the processes of selection and recruitment of head teachers. It suggests that such discrimination may be subtle and widespread, and it suggests it could be to do with particular issues with governor training.

(Bush, Glover and Sood 2006) This journal paper looks at how BME teacher leaders are greatly under-represented in English UK schools compared with the number of BME pupils. One questionnaire responded commentating that she had faced with racism every step, by a lack of support from management.

BME teachers are unlikely to be promoted in their posts compared to White teachers because several issues detailed in the above journals. This is due to mainly ethnic prejudice and discrimination. (NASUWT Big Question Annual Survey 2106) BME teachers compared to White teachers are more likely to be underrated during performance management. This will prevent BME teachers from getting promoted.

This could have happened because the majority of BME teacher’s line managers are more likely to be White managers. White managers when reviewing the performance of BME teachers underrate them compared to White teachers. BME teachers are then kept back in classroom teacher positions whilst White teachers are promoted due to a well rated performance management.

(Bush, Glover and Sood 2006) states that 52% of BME teachers remain as classroom compared with 29% white women and 35% white males. Reasons given for this occurrence is that barriers to progress may arise from educational choices, gender issues, the lack of role models and low self-esteem against societal expectations.

The issue of BME teachers being unlikely to be promoted compared to White teachers can be addressed if there is racial inequality in the UK education system.

(NASUWT Big Question Annual Survey 2106) The above table confirms my research findings that there is a major difference between BME teachers and White teachers and the differences decreases as you get up to senior leadership. The table also shows in secondary maintained schools for example that all BME teachers are 9% compared to 26.6% of all BME students. This shows that there is a chronic shortage of BME teachers in relation to the BME student population. The major differences for BME teachers occurs most leadership level where there are only 46 BME teachers compared to 1,300 headteachers in secondary maintained schools.

Issue/field is ‘Inherent Racism’ in uk sCHOOLS

“Ethnicity

According to the Office for National Statistics, there were approximately 64.6 million people living in the UK in mid-2014. Of these, 56.2 million (87.2 per cent) were White British.

The most recent Census in 2011 highlights that in England and Wales, 80 per cent of the population were white British. Asian (Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi, other) ‘groups’ made up 6.8 per cent of the population; black groups 3.4 per cent; Chinese groups 0.7 cent, Arab groups 0.4 per cent and other groups 0.6 per cent.

In London in 2011, 45 per cent (3.7 million) of 8.2 million usual residents were White British.

87 per cent of those in England and Wales were born in the UK. Of those not born in the UK, 9 per cent were born in India, 8 per cent in Poland and 6 per cent in Pakistan.

The table below shows changes in the proportion (by percentage points) of the population of England and Wales, by ethnicity, between 2001 and 2011.”

Irrorguk. 2017. Irrorguk. [Online]. [3 December 2017]. Available from: http://www.irr.org.uk/research/statistics/ethnicity-and-religion/

In-text citation: (Irrorguk, 2017)

“Evidence show that there is ‘inherent racism’ in UK schools. This is in the form of BME Teachers not be given jobs, not being allowed to progress to leadership roles and when given roles, only temporary jobs are offered.

Black and ethnic minority teachers in British schools are subject to “deep-rooted, endemic and institutionalised racism”, an extensive new report has warned.

More than twice the proportion of BME teachers (31 per cent) said they have experienced discrimination at work in the past year compared to their white peers.

The survey of 12,000 teachers, undertaken by the Nasuwt teaching union and the Runneymede Trust, found BME teachers were more likely to have suffered ill health as a result of work.” (Insert author of Runnymeade Trust report and date and NASUWT report and date)

The Independent. 2017. Black and minority teachers face ‘inherent racism’ in UK schools, report warns | The Independent. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/education-news/bme-teachers-racism-uk-schools-black-minority-ethnic-education-nasuwt-runneymede-trust-a7827131.html.

This was an article published in July 2017 by The Independent newspaper based on the report by the NASUWT teaching union who surveyed BME Teachers in a national survey about their experiences of teaching in UK schools.

I do believe the information presented in this article to be true as the information is based on a survey among BME teachers generally telling about their experiences. The majority of BME teachers are saying the same thing in their responses to the survey.

As a BME teacher, I too have experienced the same thing; difficulty in getting a permanent job, only been able to get temporary roles as a supply teacher with no job security. In addition, I have been racially abused by students.

“The report highlights, among other things, an “endemic” racial inequality in school leadership teams, “chronic” under-representation of BAME teachers and a culture in schools where racism is widespread and pervasive. It makes for grim reading as a BAME teacher and even more so as a parent. If this is the experience of teachers then it’s fair to wonder, with trepidation, what it means for BAME children in those classrooms.”

The Guardian. 2017. Racism in schools isn’t just part of the grim past – it’s hiding in plain sight | Lola Okolosie | Opinion | The Guardian. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/jul/07/racism-schools-bame-pupils-teachers.

Another article written in July 2017 in the Guardian newspaper reporting on the NASUWT teaching union’s survey. This article is focusing on the pay gap that BME teacher face in UK schools. The article reports that only a third of BME teachers are paid for the full range of responsibilities they undertake.

The article went on to state, “BME teachers are more likely to be retrained on temporary contracts than white peers and so are likely to be locked out of employment benefits”. This mean BME teachers are unable to plan to the future as temporary contracts can be terminated at any time.

 

“The results from this year’s survey show:

 

Twice the proportions of BME teachers (31%) compared to their white counterparts, reported they have experienced discrimination in the workplace in the last 12 months;

 

79% of BME teachers compared to 64% of white teachers did not believe that they were paid at a level ‘commensurate with their skills and experiences’

 

64% BME teachers experienced ‘verbal abuse by pupils’ compared to 51% their white peers.

 

52% BME teachers did not feel that their work was valued as professionals by the school management compared to 38% of white teachers.

 

64% BME teachers felt their opinions were not valued by school management compared to 53% of their white peers.

 

The inequality of treatment in schools was impacting on the wellbeing of BME teachers outside of school with 4 out of 10 BME teachers reported poor health because of their work in the last year compared to around 2 in 10 white teachers.”

 

NASUWT. 2017. NASUWT | Many BME teachers face endemic racism. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.nasuwt.org.uk/article-listing/many-bme-teachers-face-endemic-racism.html.

 

The NASUWT survey showed disparaging differences of experiences of BME teachers and their white counterparts.

 

Critically examine and creatively explore assumptions and ideologies

In conjunction with my research, I would also be looking at various assumptions and ideologies. This would include; Habitus role models; Ethnocentric world views, Eurocentric; and institutionalised racism.

(Ltd 2018) Habitus is a cultural concept devised by Pierre Bourdieu, a sociologist. Habitus refers to the physical embodiment of cultural capital in which each of us has an embodied type of “feel” for the social situations we regularly find ourselves.

(Goldberg 2009) this journal looks at racial comparisons and relational thoughts. It states in the first instance, racial ideas, meanings, exclusionary and repressive practise in one place are influences, shaped by and fuel those elsewhere.

This means that the discrimination faced by BME teachers in UK schools are often influenced by the general practice of how BME people are treated in the UK through institutionalised racism.

(What is Institutional Racism? 2018) Any action, intentional or unintentional, that is based on race or skin colour and that subordinates an individual or group based on skin colour or race is racism. Racism can be enacted individually or institutionally.

I believe a lot of the issues happening with BME teachers is to do with institutionalised racism. Each institution that the BME teacher will encounter, will have its own institutional practices which might not be intentionally racist however detrimental to the BME teacher.

The institutional racism practised is to do with the interaction between prejudice and discrimination. Prejudice is an attitude that is based on limited information or stereotypes.

In most cases in education, especially in state schools and academies, policies are implement by the Department of Education (the government). I believe for any changes to be made to the treatment of BME teachers, the government needs to create policies that would encourage more BME people to become teachers and to better support them.

(What is Institutional Racism? 2018) The chart above shows the distinguishing factors between Prejudice and Discrimination. The chart states a ‘reformed racist’ institution has definite biases or prejudices against Blacks but does not act on them. An ‘overt racist’ institution has definite bias or prejudice and definite discriminatory behviours.

The critically reflective commentary

I have read many journals and articles relating to the treatment of BME teachers in UK schools. The journals mainly paint of a widespread difference in the treatment of BME teachers compared to White teachers. Evidence was shown in tables and graphs backed up with qualitive data from questionnaires.

 

Personal experiences

As a BME teacher, I have experienced the findings in the NASUWT Survey report and from the various Education journals. My experiences date back from when I applied to go on the Initial Teacher Training (ITT) course. It took two attempts to get on the ITT course. My first offer of a place was withdrawn due to reasons unknown.

During my teacher training year, there were issues in that my mentor took a dislike to me and reduced my teaching practice hours to the bare minimum so that I didn’t gain a more rounded experience of teaching.

Upon being qualified in 2015, I experienced push backs when attending teaching job interviews. I seem to be getting teaching job interviews, however when it comes to be appointed, I am never appointed. The only type of work, I seem to be getting seems to be temporary roles through teaching supply agencies. The temporary supply work is never consistent and it’s difficult to raise my young family.

(Artefact 2) ID Card of Teaching Supply Agency in which I work through in temporary teaching role around Yorkshire. This agency (CER) is my main agency that I work through. I am also registered with a couple of other agencies that I get work through when my main agency is unable to offer me work.

 

It’s impossible to have any career progression due to the nature of supply teaching. I work in different schools. In order to have any kind of career progression is to be working in the same school for a long period of time.

I also found that in many cases, the school won’t offer a permanent job interview or select me for the job after the job interview, however they are happy for me to work in the same school as a temporary teacher. I feel that how can I be good enough to work in the same job role temporarily however I am not good enough to do the same job permanently.

 

I believe most schools that I have had been to for permanent job interviews have not really wanted a BME teacher to be become part of their department. It’s often the case that the department have never had any association or experience of BME teachers. I believe in some cases the decision makers at the schools often choose interview candidates that are like them or have the same background as them.

 

For example, I went to permanent job interview in 2017 at a school in the outskirts of Bradford. When I arrived there, I noticed some BME pupils playing in the playground. I thought it was looking promising however I walked past the Staff picture board and noticed there were a couple of BME members of staff. I was shown to the meeting room to be waited to be called for my interview lesson. I was observed by three white women ages 30-45. I was then debriefed and told I was unsuccessful. I believe that the three white women decision makers didn’t really understand me and were looking for another white woman or possibly man to join their department.

 

My research into BME teachers in UK schools has greatly helped me with understanding the dynamics that I am experiencing in UK schools. Previously a couple of years ago, I have blamed myself for not being successful when it come to teaching job interviews. Now from my research, I have realised I am not to blame but there are some dynamics going in UK schools that is preventing BME teachers to be fully accepted into UK schools.

 

I have also resided to the fact that I probably would never get a permanent teaching job especially in Yorkshire. It might be different in parts of the country where there are more BMR population such as London or Birmingham. The only type of work that I have been getting and would still carry on getting are temporary teaching supply jobs.

Conclusion

From my research into BME teachers in UK schools, I have found disparaging treatment of BME teachers in comparison to the white teacher workforce. I have looked at several different topics including working conditions, promotions, initial teacher training and recruitment.

 

I have also looked at various artefacts including newspaper articles, Wordle of various trade union articles and government policies to do with Education and policies to do with Equality as a whole. The prominent words that came from the Wordle of the Government policies are ‘equalities’ and ‘education’. Judging from that alone it would seem that the government do not have policies regarding BME teachers/people in Education and policies on Equality.

 

(Gillborn* 2005) draws on Critical Race Theory (CRT) as a new and radical way of conceptualising the role of racism in education. It is in this sense that education policy is an act of white supremacy.

 

I found that racial discrimination, an act of white supremacy is often subtle and invisible. I believe things can be improved for BME teachers is through government change and policies protecting BME people in the community.

 

RefErences

 

Racism ‘blighting’ lives of BME teachers, research finds

https://www.tes.com/news/school-news/breaking-news/racism-blighting-lives-bme-teachers-research-finds

Visible Minorities, Invisible Teachers

https://www.nasuwt.org.uk/uploads/assets/uploaded/6576a736-87d3-4a21-837fd1a1ea4aa2c5.pdf

Schools need 68,000 extra BME teachers to reflect population

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-40568987

Many BME teachers face endemic racism

https://www.nasuwt.org.uk/article-listing/many-bme-teachers-face-endemic-racism.html

‘Benign racism’ is blighting the profession, Scottish teachers warn

https://www.tes.com/news/school-news/breaking-news/benign-racism-blighting-profession-scottish-teachers-warn

BME teachers often given stereotypical roles in schools, survey finds

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/apr/14/bme-teachers-stereotypical-roles-in-schools

British schools are suffering from ‘considerable’ and ‘stubbornly persistent’ racism, report claims

http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/politics/british-schools-suffering-considerable-stubbornly-10744247

Leeds Trinity University leads BME research study

http://www.leedstrinity.ac.uk/news/professor-jan-fook-leads-BME-research-study

‘I just don’t look the part’: BME teachers suffer racism

https://www.tes.com/news/school-news/tes-magazine/i-just-dont-look-part-bme-teachers-suffer-racism

Revealed: how ethnic minority graduates lose out on jobs

https://www.theguardian.com/education/2016/jan/30/ethnic-minority-graduates-earn-less-struggle-to-build-careers

Black and minority teachers face ‘inherent racism’ in UK schools, report warns

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/education-news/bme-teachers-racism-uk-schools-black-minority-ethnic-education-nasuwt-runneymede-trust-a7827131.html

Racism in schools isn’t just part of the grim past – it’s hiding in plain sight

https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/jul/07/racism-schools-bame-pupils-teachers

 

‘You’ve got to be tough and I’m trying’: Black and minority ethnic student teachers’ experiences of initial teacher education

Wilkins, C. 2011. ‘You’ve got to be tough and I’m trying’: Black and minority ethnic student teachers’ experiences of initial teacher education. Race Ethnicity and Education. 14(3), pp. 365-386.

 

Equal opportunities or affirmative action? The induction of minority ethnic teachers

Mcnamara, O & Basit, T. 2004. Equal opportunities or affirmative action? The induction of minority ethnic teachers. Journal of Education for Teaching . 30(2), pp. 97-115.

In-text citation: (Mcnamara & Basit, 2004)

 

How can only 18 black teachers working in Liverpool represent a diverse teaching workforce? A critical narrative

Boyle, W & Charles, M. 2016. How can only 18 black teachers working in Liverpool represent a diverse teaching workforce? A critical narrative. International Journal of Inclusive Education. 20(8), pp. 871-888.

In-text citation: (Boyle & Charles, 2016)

 

Race, Identity and Support in Initial Teacher Training

Bhopal, K. 2015. Race, Identity and Support in Initial Teacher Training. British Journal of Educational Studies. 63(2), pp. 197-211.

In-text citation: (Bhopal, 2015)

 

Invisible and hypervisible academics: the experiences of Black and minority ethnic teacher educators

 

Lander, V & Santoro, N. 2017. Invisible and hypervisible academics: the experiences of Black and minority ethnic teacher educators. Teaching in Higher Education. 22(8), pp. 1008-1021.

In-text citation: (Lander & Santoro, 2017)

 

Perceptions of career progress: the experience of Black and Minority Ethnic school leaders

Coleman, M. and Campbell-Stephens, R. (2010) Perceptions of career progress: the experience of Black and Minority Ethnic school leaders. School Leadership & Management, 30 (1), pp. 35-49.

 

Black and minority ethnic leaders in England: a portrait

Bush, T., Glover, D. and Sood, K. (2006) Black and minority ethnic leaders in England: a portrait. School Leadership & Management, 26 (3), pp. 289-305.

 

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